The Shanghai People's Congress issued the city's first smoking control law in March 2010. In addition to the May 20 measure, numerous provincial and city-level administrations in China have also enacted policies to control the prevalence and health impacts of smoking within the last decade. For the entire 20th century it is estimated that around 100 million people died prematurely because of smoking, most of them in rich countries. Furthermore, outside the largest cities in China, smoking is considered socially acceptable anywhere at any time, even if it is technically illegal. [21] While many interviewers found second-hand smoke itself toxic and damaging to citizen's health, a main reason behind popular support for the smoking ban relates to the citizen's concern for Shanghai's image. [29] A study conducted among 800 Chinese male surgeons in 2004 found that 45.2% were smokers and 42.5% had smoked in front of their patients. Exposure to secondhand smoke causes nearly 41,000 deaths … (There … [30] Am Journal Prev Med 2007, Yao T, Ong M, Lee A, Jiang Y, Mao Z: Smoking knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and associated factors among Chinese male surgeons. "[24], "The survey also showed that 81.6 percent of respondents were eager to stop smoking, or had heard of family members and friends who were considering kicking the habit. Chinese physicians and their smoking knowledge, attitudes and practices. An economic motivation against physician smoking may be the societal loss that is caused by tobacco use. A list of 101 catchy no smoking slogans for fighting the cause of smoking. "[5], As polls from the 2007 Ministry of Health report showed, there is widespread public approval of smoking bans among residents of urban areas. Most of them have no knowledge of the facts about smoking … ", "Taxation is a very effective method of reducing tobacco use. Alternatively, smoking cessation advice offered by a doctor who smokes may seem hypocritical to the patient trying to quit. For instance, local exemptions to public indoor smoking bans are often made for small businesses, particularly in the restaurant and entertainment industries. And to tell you the truth, with such a pressure-filled job, smoking is extremely helpful, at times soothing, at times energizing, at times helping me focus my attention when preparing for a complex surgery or facing a stack of paperwork 10:30 at night.[32]. [13] From 2009, Projects sponsored by Bloomberg Initiative and directed by Yang Tingzhong were designed as the first program to prohibit all forms of smoking in University campuses in China. 1. The data for China, Russia and Japan is from separate reports submitted to the WTO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. "[10] Notable support also exists within the sphere of representative politics; allegedly, political advisors of the CPPCC have even gone so far as to call for smoke-free legislative sessions. In addition to passing the smoking ban, Shanghai legislators have designed a website "Smoke Free Shanghai" [23] to raise anti-smoking awareness. A 2015 survey on Chinese adults’ use of tobacco showed that China’s smoking … ", The Beijing government has also adopted a policy of persuasion, combined with a fine of up to 5,000 yuan ($730) for violating the ban, in an attempt to further encourage citizens to curtail public smoking.[24]. According to a report by the Fudan University Media and Public Opinion Research Center, 93.5% of the 509 people they interviewed supported a smoking ban at all Shanghai Expo 2010 pavilions and also felt that smoking should not be allowed in restaurants or shopping centers near the Expo area. Medical Anthropology 2008, Garfinkel L, Stellman SD. The China Tobacco Corporation produces 205 trillion cigarettes on an annual basis. About one-fourth of those smokers live in China and they are the fastest rising market … [SUPChina, “China’s Cigarette Smoking Epidemic” September 5, 2019] More than 300 million Chinese adults smoke—among them more than half of all Chi… [1] The China National Tobacco Corporation (中国烟草总公司 Zhōngguó Yāncǎo Zǒnggōngsī) is by sales the largest single manufacturer of tobacco products in the world and boasts a monopoly in Mainland China generating between 7 and 10% of government revenue. Thus it is prohibiting scenes of cigarette brands, people smoking at smoke-free places, minors buying and smoking cigarettes, and other smoking scenes associated with minors. Cigarette smoking among physicians, dentists, and nurses. [16] Such indeterminate enforcements of supposedly well-defined public health regulations in practice may limit the impact of de jure national smoking bans. Responding to criticism about the current legislation not being well enforced, Wang Yu, director of the China CDC explained that "This project would create strict legislation to guarantee 100-percent smoke-free public venues and workplaces and figure out a feasible and forceful working mechanism to enforce the smoking ban." The facts about smoking in China are scary and getting scarier by the minute: It produces more tobacco than any other country. The overall daily smoking rate in Hong Kong is 11.8% (HK Department of Census and Statistics Household Thematic Survey 36) with 25% of males smoking whereas in China 63% of males smoke. [5] With an ever-increasing Chinese smoking population of over 350 million, the enactment of the May 20 initiative represents an important landmark in China's commitment to tobacco control. Smoking is prohibited on all Chinese High-speed trains (G, D, C types train) now. [28]. Cultural norms from China persist in the city because many Chinese residents are foreign-born, she said: “Sixty percent of men there smoke, while there is a stigma to women smoking.” In fact, Chinese physicians who smoke may be able to form closer relationships with patients because of tobacco's role in the local culture as a commodity that promotes unity and friendship. The party-secretary smokes. On May 20, 2009, the Ministry of Health of China issued a formal decision to completely ban smoking in all health administration offices and medical facilities by the year 2011. More than one third of current smokers had smoked in front of their patients and nearly all had smoked during their work shift. [2], Yang Gonghuan, deputy director of the National Center of Disease Control of China, said that progress on tobacco control is not moving quickly because the government derives large tax revenues from tobacco sales, and the industry employs a large workforce. Smoking Is Strictly Prohibited on High-Speed Trains. Their backgrounds in science and medicine enable them to know more about the effects of smoking on the body compared to the general public, so a decision they make about tobacco may be more educated. Smoking causes cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. As of 2018, a high percentage of the world population was covered by … The new daily average [after the extended smoking ban] was less than half of what was reported in the first four months of this year, when the city's firefighters had to put out 325 fires caused by cigarette butts, or 2.7 per day.". However, there is a lack of national legislation to ban smoking in workplaces. In light of its preparations to host the 2010 World Expo, the city of Shanghai had recently heightened its anti-smoking legislation. Tobacco kills more than 8 million people each year, translating to one smoking-related death every … 371), first enacted in 1982 with several amendments subsequently. China is the world’s largest consumer and producer of tobacco.China has about 350 million smokers and produces 42% of the all cigarettes in the world. Chinese physicians have a substantially higher smoking prevalence than doctors in the United States (3.3%) or United Kingdom (6.8%). [10], However, widespread apathy and tacit acceptance toward smoking policy are likely to predominate within large portions of the Chinese population. Jiang Y, Ong M K, Tong E K, et al. [citation needed], Impact of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Arguments in favor of physicians' choice to smoke, Arguments against physicians' choice to smoke. However, due to the Chinese government's complex relationship with tobacco policy (for instance, many localities rely upon tobacco tax revenue as a substantial source of income),[6] there have been many concerns about the practicality of the national policy's enforcement. Serving cigarettes … Shanghai residents point out that despite the fact many shopping malls and all subways and subway stations actually already banned smoking prior to this law, there is low compliance and people often smoke directly in front of NO SMOKING signs. [20] Another survey done by public health experts from Fudan University which involved 800 hotel guests and around 4,000 patrons and employees of restaurants, shops and entertainment venues in Shanghai found that about 73 percent of the hotel guests said Shanghai should adopt a smoking ban in public areas, 84 percent of restaurant guests reported exposure to second-hand smoke, and 74 percent of them were annoyed by the fumes and support smoking controls. [34], China remains one of the three leading countries (along with India and Indonesia) in total number of male smokers, accounted for 51.4% of the world's male smokers in 2015. Dingding, Xin. On October 11, 2005, China became the 78th country in the world to ratify the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international treaty intended to reduce tobacco-related disease and death. [26] The public places for smoking ban included restaurants, entertainment outlets, schools, supermarkets, and governmental offices. [30], The smoking rates from these independent studies are lower than those reported by China's state-run newspaper. Smoking in certain public places in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has been banned from 1 January 2007 under the government's revised Smoking (Public Health) Ordinance (Cap. [31], Smoking rates among Chinese male physicians are comparable to the country's general population, although overall physician rates are lower. In fact, men are particularly at risk because cigarette use is highly gendered in … 36% of the population smoke, including 70% of all Chinese men. Tobacco control legislation does exist, but public enforcement is rare to non-existent outside the most highly internationalized cities, such as Shanghai and Beijing. [18], On February 12, 2011, State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, announced that it will ban inappropriate smoking scenes in movies and TV shows. The Beijing Municipal Government has recently vowed anti-smoking laws to ban smoking in all indoor public venues, workplace, and public transport vehicles in a new anti-smoking … [29], Male surgeons were found to smoke more than any other specialty. Furthermore, smoking can be considered a personal matter that should not be relevant to the workplace. [27] Yang Tingzhong from Zhejiang University undertook campaigns and project sponsored by Bloomberg Global Initiative to ban smoking in university campuses at a nationwide scale. CA Cancer J Clin. However, by March 2010, the Guangzhou Municipal People's Congress prepared to lift the smoking ban in work places, including offices, conference rooms and auditoriums. In 2010, smoking caused nearly 1 million (840 000 male, 130 000 female) deaths in China. [12] Wu Yiqun, vice executive director with the Beijing-based Thinktank Research Center for Health Development, criticized China's tobacco industry supervisory administration for "[failing] to oversee Chinese tobacco producers" in this aspect. smoking prevalence in women aged 14–24 years.13 In 1988, 34% of male and 4% of female junior high school students in China reported smoking at least occasion-ally.4 Vocational/technical high schools had a higher smoking prevalence than other types of schools.12,13 A higher smoking … It has an estimated 350 million smokers — that's 1 in 3 of the world's smokers. 2. The practice is controversial because some believe that medical professionals should serve as role models of healthy behavior to their patients, while others believe that doctors should have the right to smoke because it is a personal matter. The tobacco industry spends billions of dollars each year on marketing cigarettes. ", Despite the popular support for the Shanghai smoking ban, many also feel skeptical about the actual implementation of the law. Women smoked much less. The chair of my department smokes. ", This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 17:22. Public health experts agree that it will be difficult to enforce a strict ban with the large number of smokers present in Shanghai.[20]. According to one citizen that the public health experts from Fudan interviewed, "Smoking has been banned in public places in several countries. Tobacco smoking is one of the world’s largest health problems. The latest amendment enlarges the smoking ban to include indoor workplaces, most public places including restaurants, Internet cafés, public lavatories, beaches and most public parks. Contact, China has the largest number of obese children in the world, study says, For China’s Growing Middle Class, Expanding Waistlines Pose Problem, China Not Doing Enough to Stub out Smoking, Chinese Manufacturing | Fascinating Facts & Figures, Facts about China: CRIME, HUMAN RIGHTS & SUICIDE, Total population: 76.4 years (#51 world ranking). [30], As of 2014, two thirds of Chinese men smoked. However, given the decreasing smoking rate in recent years mainly due to increasing tobacco tax, the government currently has no further plans to control sales of tobacco other than by adjusting taxation. In 2009, the authorities of Gongan County attempted to increase consumption of locally produced cigarettes, by demanding that local officials smoke up to 23,000 packs of Hubei-branded cigarettes per year. [4] Nearly 60% of male Chinese doctors are smokers, which is the highest proportion in the world. Tobacco use has been identified as an increasingly popular phenomenon in China, and Chinese physicians have been found to exhibit high smoking rates as well. Kohrman, Matthew. We should do the same, at least during the Expo, since it is a cosmopolitan event. Smoking deaths in China are set to triple to 3 million a year by 2050, according to a new study that examines the devastating toll of rising smoking rates on the country’s male population. A massive increase in opium smoking in China was more or less directly instigated by the British trade deficit with Qing dynasty China. It has an estimated 350 million smokers — that's 1 in 3 of the world's smokers. The economic burden of smoking estimated in terms of GDP reveals that smoking accounts for approximately 0.7% of China's GDP and approximately 1% of US GDP. The industry supports around 20 million jobs, nearly 500,000 of which … Some bars, karaoke parlors, saunas and nightclubs were exempt until 1 July 2009. Smoke-free list extends to healthcare facilities. As a response to FCTC recommendations for reduction of access and supply-side tobacco regulation, the Ministry of Health is now targeting farmers to give up tobacco plantation and trying to “convince them that the tobacco industry can be replaced by other industries that are more healthy, sustainable and profitable.”[17], Another potential obstacle is the Chinese tobacco industry's lack of complete compliance with nationally defined policies regarding the correct presentation of warning labels on cigarette packages, which must be readily visible and cover at least 30% of the visible area of the packaging. China Daily. "[15], Given the complex and multifaceted nature of political agendas in China, governmental public-health related interests often clash with economic interests. The study of male and … [29] Fewer smokers also believed that physicians should serve as role models for their patients and that indoor smoking in hospitals should be prohibited. "[5], The "Decision" also encourages health administration offices to utilize mass media resources and draw upon large-scale publicity campaigns such as World No Tobacco Day in order to "actively promote the importance of implementing a total smoking ban in military and civil health administration offices and medical and health institutions. [12] Various health experts, activists, and public advocacy groups regard the Chinese government's escalating efforts toward tobacco policy as "surely good news for the country's smoking control progress. The announcement said smoking scenes are out of line with the country's stance on tobacco control, and are misleading to the public, especially minors. Some of them even smoke boldly in hospitals or schools.”[17] This is problematic because, regardless of whether these professionals continue to smoke out of habit, social custom, or "apparent disregard" for evidence of smoking risk, they are still expected to "behave themselves and set a good example for others in tobacco control," Li says. [7] Under the conditions of the FCTC, China is required to completely ban "promotion and sponsorship on radio, television, print media and the Internet within five years," [8] as well as to prohibit tobacco companies from sponsoring international events or activities. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. As a matter of fact, in Italy it is only forbidden to smoke inside public spaces: cinemas, restaurants, clubs. Background China consumes about 40% of the world's cigarettes, predominantly by men, following a large increase in recent decades. Prior to enacting the nationwide smoking ban, the Ministry of Health had already maintained active involvement in decrying the negative effects of smoking and striving toward decreased prevalence of tobacco use. This decision was reversed after public outcry and coverage by international press. Among smokers, the polls found that 93.5% support a total ban on smoking in all schools, 75.5% support a total ban in hospitals, and 94.3% support a total ban in all public transport. An article published in 2009 interviewed a source who claimed that 60% of Chinese male doctors were smokers, a percentage higher than any other country's doctors in the world. Current tax regulations in Chinese tobacco control policy are limited, inconsistent, and tied to the structural intricacies of domestic ownership and control of tobacco production and distribution. [24] The ban had a generally strong impact, with poll results suggesting that a majority of Chinese residents (69% out of over 10000 respondents) are "not only aware of a smoking ban in Beijing, but [95% of respondents] also hope that the authorities promote the move nationwide. 4. [4], Smoking is a social custom in the PRC,[1] and giving cigarettes at any social interaction is a sign of respect and friendliness.[1]. [2] Within the Chinese guanxi system, tobacco is still a ubiquitous gift acceptable on any occasion, particularly outside urban areas. These taglines are targeted towards bringing attention to the harmful chemicals and long term effects of smoking … 'I am delighted by such encouraging support from the public, it will help to promote legislation to control tobacco use,' [said] Jiang Yuan, vice-head of the tobacco control office under the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among doctors: Governmentality, Embodiment, and nurses the on! 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