The moderate decrease in the smoking rate may indicate that tobacco control measures have been at least somewhat effective. 10.1136/tc.8.2.196. Several possible explanations for this finding are, urban residents are more often exposed to anti-smoking campaigns and measures, and the co-existence of other known risk factors for smoking, namely lower income and education levels, among those living in rural areas. PubMed  The present study found that 60% of Malaysian male smokers started smoking by the age of 18, which is higher than those reported in China (52.7%) [26], but lower than in the USA (80%) [33] and Canada (82.6%) [34]. 2001, 11: 206-210. * * Department of Psychology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, … 1994, Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, CDC: Vital Signs –Smoking and secondhand smoke. et al. During the first six (6) months of 2019, enforcement involves verbal or written warnings. About 20% teenagers smoke. Similar proportions have been observed in the previous NHMS surveys [16]. Google ScholarÂ, Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health: Clinical Practice Guidelines. Smoking-related diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the main cause of premature death globally [1]. 2006, 15: 247-253. (Accessed on 29 Dec 2011). Male respondents in rural areas were more likely to be smokers compared to males living in urban areas (Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 1.12, 95%, CI 1.03–1.22). in 2008 [38]. 10.1136/bmj.309.6959.937. 10.1093/eurpub/11.2.206. Another possible contributing factor for higher prevalence of smoking in rural areas is targeted marketing by the tobacco industry towards the rural residents [42]. Prev Med. 10.1006/pmed.2001.0915. Increasing the tax on tobacco products is an avenue for the Malaysian government to effectively decrease the affordability of cigarettes and potentially curb smoking-related diseases in Malaysia. 2008, 94: 793-797. However, in Malaysia retailers are still allowed to display tobacco products, and 32% of Malaysian respondents noticed signs and picture of items with cigarette logos at outlets where tobacco products are sold. 2008, Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Publish Health. statement and Lim, H.K., Ghazali, S.M., Kee, C.C. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Compared to neighboring countries, this average number of cigarettes is more than the 11.3 cigarettes per day reported by the Philippines [27] yet lower than 13.5 and 14.3 cigarettes per day reported in Vietnam [24] and China [36], respectively. This sense of vulnerability, in addition to having a greater likelihood of experiencing adverse health events from smoking, tend to make older males more receptive to public health messages and medical advice, and therefore more likely to quit smoking [45]. in 2010 [39]. PubMed  Respondents were 2002 youths between the ages of 13 and 17 from Thailand (n = 1000) and Malaysia (n = 1002). Tob Control. Smith DR: Tobacco smoking by occupation in Australia and the united states- a review of national surveys conducted between 1970 and 2005. As Article 14 of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control is implemented worldwide, it will be helpful to those designing stop smoking services to plan for the kinds of clients they can expect and this depends on how far findings in one country can generalise to other countries. This heralds a worrying trend in Malaysia since at present more than a quarter of its population is aged 15 and below [35]. Ferketich AK, Gallus S, Iacobelli N, Zuccaro P, Colombo P, La Vecchia C: Smoking in Italy 2007, with a focus on the young. Among males aged 18 years and older, almost half were current smokers (49.2%). Now, it is estimated that over 85 percent … 1994, London: Policy Studies Institute. Khor YL, Foong K, Tan YL, Goh G: Surveillance of tobacco industry marketing strategies at retail outlets. Starting tomorrow (yes, 1st January 2019), smokers are banned from smoking at restaurants and food premises.Under the law, smokers can only smoke 3 metres away from eateries. PubMed Central  2001, 33: 453-461. 2001, 153: 807-814. Goh TC, Tee GH, Salleh S, Lidayati MR, Miezal M, Hairal Z, et al: The effectiveness of Tobacco Product Regulation. It is also possible that the healthier non smokers are more likely to get and stay married than those who are divorced as posited by the marriage selection theory. Shapoa L, Gilmorea AB, Cokera R, McKeea M, Shapob E: Prevalence and determinants of smoking in Tirana city, Albania: a population-based survey. Type of occupation was significantly associated with current smoking status in the present study. Ferrante M, Fiore M, Leon L, Constantidines G, Castaing M, Fallico R, Sciacca S, Modonutti GB: Age of smoking initiation, tobacco habits and risk perception among primary, middle and high school students in southern Italy. Aekplakorn W, Hogan MC, Tiptaradol S, Wibulpolprasert S, Punyaratabandhu P, Lim SS: Tobacco and hazardous or harmful alcohol use in Thailand: Joint prevalence and associations with socioeconomic factors. http://jknj.moh.gov.my/jsm/day2/Speciality%20Symposia/SS_13_Smoking%20Cessation%20Bringing%20Aspiration%20into%20Reality.pdf. There are more young people who smoke … To ensure a high response rate, unoccupied households were revisited up to three times. Jarallah JS, Al-Rubeaan KA, Al-Nuaim AR, Al-Ruhaily AA, Kalantan KA: Prevalence and determinants of smoking in three regions of Saudi Arabia. CAS  2005, 40: 756-764. %PDF-1.6 %���� Hence, amendments were made to the tobacco control regulations 1993 to ban all advertisements of tobacco brands on the non-tobacco product. Public Health. Since the introduction of the Control of Tobacco Products Regulation in 1993, the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke in gazetted areas has reportedly declined while prohibition of smoking in Malaysian homes has increased from 7% in 2005 to 40.3% in 2009, with nearly half of all smokers designating their homes as non-smoking areas. Google ScholarÂ. To reduce the consumption of tobacco product among Malaysians, the Malaysian government has instituted many anti-smoking measures. PubMed  We report 95% confidence intervals without P values as the large sample size could generate significant results even if statistical differences or associations were small. Joossens L, Raw M: The tobacco control scale: a new scale to measure country activity. The number of households selected was based on 4.4 expected respondents per LQ. By using this website, you agree to our (Accessed on 29 Dec 2011, Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (CTUMS). 10.1016/j.healthpol.2009.08.013. And although all states in Malaysia will enforce the smoking ban at all eateries tomorrow, it was reported that Sarawak won’t be enforcing this just yet. 2011, 377 (9775): 14381447-, Article  The overall response rate was 96.7%. 7 The high prevalence of current smokers is associated with males, Malays, the rural population, government servant and those with low educational background. The current study examined patterns of youth smoking in Thailand and Malaysia. Fifty percent of smokers die of a smoking-related disease, and the life expectancy of one in four smokers is reduced by as much as 15-20 years . About 50% of Malaysian men (18 years and above) smoke. in 2000 [51, 52] reported higher income level as a protective factor for smoking while Aekplakorn et al. 10.1136/tc.8.1.53. While it is unclear if this can be attributed to a switch to vaping, the same report shows five per cent of Malaysians use vaping products. Other Asian countries which reported comparable smoking prevalence in adult males are Thailand (45.6%) [23] and Vietnam (50%) [24]. Google ScholarÂ. Health Policy. The higher proportion of ex-smokers in older age groups was among the plausible explanations to the present finding. Google ScholarÂ. The observed decrease, though statistically significant, is very modest compared to other countries that have reduced smoking prevalence by 9% to 25% over 10–20 years after implementing anti-tobacco measures [21, 22]. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. %%EOF Smoking can cause harm throughout the body, including the heart, brain, and lungs. Approximately 3% of youth between the ages of 13 and 17 were … Nevertheless, the smoking prevalence in Malaysia was still high when compared to developed countries such as Singapore (16%) 22 and Australia (12.8%) 23. Tob Control. Previous studies have shown that smoking is often used as a coping mechanism to deal with stress [57]. Prev Med. Soc Sci Med. 1999, 282 (13): 1247-1253. Peto R, Boreham J, Lopez AD, Thun M, Health C: Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: indirect estimation from national vital statistics. 2011, 364: 2469-2470. Peninsular Malaysia implemented the smoking ban on 1 January 2019 while Sabah and Sarawak will be imposing the ban on 1 February 2019 and 1 March 2019 respectively. A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. Effective today, customers caught smoking in eateries can be fined a maximum of RM10,000 or jailed up to two years, while restaurant operators who fail to put up no-smoking … 2009, Available at http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/tobacco/Documents/CTCPUpdate2009.pdf, . A majority began to smoke before the age of 25 (90.1%), 19.7% (95% CI 18.8–20.6) between 13–15 year-old and 33.8% (95% CI 32.7–34.9) between 16–18 year-old. About 62,000 families (120,000 people) of Malaysia's 14 million population are involved in tobacco farming, and 360 independent curers employ about 25,000 workers. These findings may be explained by the ‘marriage protection’ and ‘marriage selection’ theories [49], which posit that emotional distress due to divorce cause divorcees to turn to smoking for relief. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors. These include introduction of tobacco control regulations in 1993, prohibition of advertisement on tobacco products and event sponsorship from tobacco companies, and control on the sales of tobacco products to minors. Therefore, social disparities in smoking need to be addressed into future health policies. (Accessed on 26 December 2012), enforcement among minor smokers in Maharani Town, Muar, Johor 2010, ITC Mauritius National Report-Result of the Wave 3 Survey. The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/8/prepub. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Emphasis should be on rehabilitation and prevention of smoking instead of punishment as commonly practiced now. (Accessed on 5 February 2011), a. Philippine’s Country Reports. Potential factors contributing to the association between ethnicity and smoking status are many and deserve further investigation, especially as adjustment for age, socio-economic status and other factors did not remove the effect of ethnicity on smoking status. in 2005 and Gilmore et al. We would also like to thank those who were involved in the study and assisted in data collection and management for their support and cooperation. Data was collected using the supervised self administered questionnaire the Youth Risk Behaviour … 2004, MD, Huattsville: National Center for Health. (Accessed on 29 Dec 2011). Levy DT, Benjakul S, Ross H, Ritthiphakdee B: The role of tobacco control policies in reducing smoking and deaths in a middle income nation: results from the Thailand SimSmoke simulation model. Google ScholarÂ. Introduction: As Stop Smoking Clinics (SSCs) become more common across the globe, it is important to know how far one can make broad generalisations concerning characteristics of smokers who attend these clinics and factors that predict their Cookies policy. CAS  [UPDATE 31/12/18] And that’s not all. 2007, 13: 702-712. In conclusion, this study reports and comments on the ongoing high prevalence of current male smokers in Malaysia. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Google ScholarÂ. h�bbd``b`9@��9�`Kr�A� Malaysia smoking rate for 2015 was 21.80%, a 0.2% decline from 2014. Khang YH, Cho HJ: Socioeconomic inequality in cigarette smoking: trends by gender, age, and socioeconomic position in South Korea, 1989–2003. The higher the level of an individual’s education and income, the less likely that individual is to be a current smoker. Correspondence to Article 8 of FCTC dictates the signatory countries consider total smoking prohibition in all enclosed areas and public places. Google ScholarÂ, Peto R, Boreham J, Lopez AD, Thun M, Health C, et al: Mortality from smoking in developed countries 1950–2000: indirect estimates from national vital statistics. 84 0 obj <>stream The campaign apparently succeeded in educating the public on the dangers of smoking [11]. LKH wrote the manuscript, and carried out statistical analysis with assistance from SMG and KCC, AFY, ZZ, MHNM and SS responsible for data collection, design and coordination of the study. Proposal Development Section, Institute of Public Health, Jalan Bangsar, 50590, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Hock Kuang Lim, Kuay Kuang Lim, Ying Ying Chan, Huey Chien Teh & Gurpreet Kaur, Epidemiology and Biostatistic unit, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Cheong Chee Kee & Ahmad Faudzi Mohd Yusoff, Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health, 62590, Putrajaya, Malaysia, Pharmacy Practice Department, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia, Health Division, Kuala Lumpur City Hall, Jalan Raja Laut, 50350, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, You can also search for this author in The tobacco industry in Malaysia is estimated to be worth more than USD 2 billion a year with three major multinational companies dominating the industry [10, 11]. 2008, 66: 609-619. Divorced (1.67, 95% CI 1.22–2.28) and residing in rural areas (1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.22) were also associated with a higher likelihood of smoking. Springer Nature. Nystadt P: Marital life course events and smoking behaviour in Sweden 1980–2000. Imposing higher taxes on tobacco products may be an effective strategy to boost smoking cessation. These respondents were thereafter excluded from the sampling frame. 2011, http://www.moh.gov.my/images/gallery/Report/GATS_Malaysia.pdf. Analysis to account for the past 40 years and the next 40, Goh G Surveillance... Spss version 16 tobacco products may be due to differences in the analysis account...: National Center for Health and reasons to quit risk factors in,! Decline from 2014 present study control measures have been amended numerous times to progressively increase the free... Commonly practiced now found to smoke more than half of the analysis 18 years and above was conducted using to! 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